Saturday, January 16, 2010

Quality Ways For the Translation

As all the countries of the world, to fulfill there financial need, coming together irrespective of there political boundaries and, to help people come together and carry same perspective for one target, these countries are taking help of translation to let the world know about there historical articles, scriptures and texts.

Technique can also not ignore the need importance of translation today. Especially, as in current times its position and situation clearly shows that its field will keep on growing. Because of this, many people are making translation as there professional.

But translation is not a piece of cake… It’s a process of dedication and complete lexical knowledge. As far as those people are concerned, who think that mere knowledge of some languages can make it easy to translate a language from another language, they are not correct. As the transferring a life from its habitat, effects on its efficiency and habits, as translation of a creation of a language definitely affects its original existence. Most of the time, is has been seen that, some translation of a creation is very awkward.

For removing this type of problem here are some step must be taken:-

First of all, we should well understand the topic or document is being given for translation. Doing many kind of research, can be helped to understand the sole of the source. After understanding the sole, we can do the translation very much closer to existing translation. Then we can start the Translation. After completing the translation, we must re-review our own translation. As we know Human being is the statue of mistakes. That’s why it is absolutely sure that we can do mistakes, and by this way we can remove these kind mistakes by our self.

Secondly, we should send our translation to the Editor, for editing and Review. It will bring upon qualitative changes in your translation by removing grammatical and stylistically errors.
After this, we must send the edited and reviewed translation to the reviewer for final review. It is very much important role in translation. Because the reviewer find out the miner mistakes, preferential changes from the translation.

After the completion of above steps, we can say the translation has been completed. But even we must send the file to the Final revision and detailed explanation. So that we can be satisfied with the translation and further argues.

Following these steps while translation, Improve the Quality and Sole of an Existing Creation and can be satisfied with Our Own work.

Translation : Art or Science

Since time immemorial, human beings have yearned for knowledge. Inventions of fire by flinting two stones and then of wheel, were the most revolutionary inventions of history. These inventions led human beings settle down in a group, making the framework of a society. With the formation of society came the apparent urge of acquiring knowledge and sharing it. In today’s world, communication between different nations with different languages is feasible through translation.

Translation is putting some content into the words of a different language; maintaining the spirit of the source language. In the same way, Pinhhuck (1977: 38) defines translation as "a process of finding a Target Language equivalent of the Source Language.

Is translation a scientific study or artistic endeavor, researchable theory or technical craft, a branch of linguistics or of literature? Being utilized as a means to act as a bridge between two cultures, translation seems to be a complicated and multi-faceted activity or phenomenon.

According to Benjamin (1923), the twentieth century has been called the age of 'reproduction' or, as Jumplet (1923) points out 'the age of translation' (as cited in Newmark, 1988a:1); however, the constant debate as to whether translation is an art or science has a long history. Some scholars may argue that translation is a process of creative thinking; consequently, it is subjective and cannot be systematized by laws.

As Savory (1957:49) claim, "it would almost be true to say that there are no universally accepted principles of translation, because the only people qualified to formulate them have never agreed among themselves"; therefore, he does not tend to consider translation as a science.

According to Kelly (1979:51), Hieronymus (also known as St. Jerome, 4th century A.D) as well as others followed Cicero's 9106-43 B.C) claim constantly that translation was a branch of oratory, and Holmes (1979a:23), specifying two branches of translation studies, namely pure and applied, points out that the aim of pure translation studies is to describe the phenomenon of translation and to investigate all related aspects of it; however, applied translation studies focus on the application of translation theories to such aspects of translation as translation practice, the teaching and learning of translation.

He believes that all factions of translation are interrelated and their relationship is dialectical; however, Toury (1995:7) puts forward that the relationship between pure and applied translation studies is unidirectional--theoretical studies serve as a nurturing source for the applied studies. Furthermore, Toury (1982:7) believes that translation, as a cognitive science, has to reach beyond linguistics, and calls it "interdisciplinary"; consequently, it seems that he considers translation a science. This science seems to be warmly welcomed by some scholars in the form of 'word for word.' For instance, Norton (1984:59) quotes Horace (65-8 B.C) to state that, "it is the duty of a faithful interpreter to translate what he undertakes word for word."

Nevertheless, Chukovskii (1984:93) does not take translation into consideration as a science when he confirms that, "translation is not only an art, but a high art." Moreover, Newmark (1988a), referring to translation as "a craft" Some scholars consider translation a science. Though the most salient features of a field of science are precision and predictability, Berkeley (1991:83) notes that some sciences, principally those dealing with the humanities, do not attain a one hundred percent predictability level. However, Baker (1998:4) points out that translation is a separate academic discipline which, "like any young discipline, needs to draw on the findings and theories of the other related disciplines in order to develop and formulate its own methods." Nevertheless, distinguishing between science and translation, Karra (2000:1) writes that "my colleagues never understood why I chose the world of translation over science."

Translation is an art, not a science; like most arts, it is a lot more complicated than it looks. (Translation, 2005:2)

Translation studies can be regarded as a science. However, if we take the product of translation into account, it seems rational to think of it as a craft or art. Whether translation is regarded as a science, art, or craft, it seems significant to note that a good translation should play the same role in the TL as the original did in the SL.

अनुवाद की समस्याएं और चुनौतियां

अनुवाद की प्रामाणिकता, भाषा और सटीकता पर प्रश्नचिह्न लगाए जाने के बावजूद यह स्पष्ट है कि अनुवाद वर्तमान समाज की अत्यन्त महत्त्वपूर्ण आवश्यकता बन गया है। इसी कारण आज अनुवाद पर स्वतंत्र विधा के रूप में विचार किया जा रहा है। वर्तमान वैज्ञानिक तथा औद्योगिक उन्नति तथा संचार और क्रान्ति के युग में अनुवाद और भी अधिक महत्त्वपूर्ण हो गया है। टेक्नोलॉजी तथा सूचना के क्षेत्र में प्रत्येक राष्ट्र और समाज शीघ्रातिशीघ्र उन्नति के लिए प्रयासरत है। आज के प्रतिस्पर्धात्मक युग में यह अनिवार्य हो गया है कि विभिन्न भाषाओं में तुरन्त अनुवाद की व्यवस्था उपलब्ध हो। आधुनिक सामाजिक व्यवस्था में त्वरित अनुवाद के महत्त्व को देखते हुए कम्प्यूटरीकृत अनुवाद के क्षेत्र में भी अनुसंधान किए जा रहे हैं।

आमतौर से, एक भाषा की किसी सामग्री का दूसरी भाषा में रूपान्तर ही अनुवाद है। इस तरह अनुवाद का कार्य है - एक भाषा में व्यक्त विचारों को दूसरी भाषा में व्यक्त करना है। लेकिन इसे व्यक्त करना सरल काम नहीं है। हर एक भाषा की अपनी विशेषताएं होती हैं, जो अन्य भाषा से कुछ या पूर्णतः भिन्न होती है। अनुवाद करते समय अनुवादक को यह ध्यान रखना होगा कि मूल भाषा के भाव को अनूदित भाषा में पूर्णतः उतारा गया हो। पूर्णतः भाव का मतलब है कि मूल भाषा की सामग्री व अनूदित भाषा की सामग्री पढने से यह प्रतीत नहीं होना चाहिए कि यह अनूदित कृति है। कम से कम मूल भाषा व स्रोत भाषा में निकटता होनी चाहिए। समानता की यह निकटता जितनी अधिक होती है, अनुवाद उतना ही अच्छा और सफल होता है।

अनुवाद की समस्या द्विभाषकीय है, इसके लिये उन दो भाषाओं का पूर्ण ज्ञान अपेक्षित है जिससे और जिसमें अनुवाद होता है। यह समस्या मूलतः दुभाषिये की है। इसका तात्पर्य यह है कि अनुवादक का दो भाषाओं पर इतना अधिकार होना चाहिये कि वह दोनों पक्षों का ठीक-ठीक ज्ञान रखते हुए संबोधित कर सके और समझा सके। भाषा का एक स्वभाव बन जाता है जिसे संस्कार कहते हैं। अनुवाद शैली से विजातीय भाषा को सीखकर मनुष्य धीरे-धीरे स्वभाव अर्जित करता है और अभ्यास बन जाने पर वह कभी-कभी अपने आपको दो नावों पर सवार अनुभव करता है।

अभ्यस्त भाषाम में, हमारा ध्यान लिखने, पढने और बोलने में उन कठिनाइयों की ओर नहीं जाता जो भाषा की संरचना से जुड़ी होत हीं। भावनाओं का प्रकाशन स्वतः प्रवाह में होता चलता है। हम धारा के किसी क्षण में रुककर तल में अन्तर्निहित भावना को देखने का प्रयास नहीं करते। यह तथ्य सजातीय भाषा के लिए अत्यन्त स्वाभाविक है। इसकी समस्या स्वभाषा अनुवाद परिभाषा को विजातीय भाषा की शब्दावली को स्वभाषा में व्यक्त करना है। इसके लिए उस भाषा की भावना का ज्ञान अपेक्षित होता है। उसके अनन्तर उसी के समकक्ष भाव और विचार व्यक्त करने वाले शब्द या वाक्य को स्वभाषा में खोजना पडता है। अनुवाद की वही मूल समस्या है।

भाषा वैज्ञानिक दृष्टि से अनुवाद की समस्या के दो पहलू हैं। एक है द्विभाषकीय रूपान्तरण और दूसरा है भाव रूपान्तरण। दोनों एक दूसरे के पूरक होकर आते हैं। द्विभाषकीय शैली से किया हुआ अनुवाद शुद्ध रूप मंल शब्दानुवाद होता है, जिसमें तुलनात्मक भाषा विज्ञान महत्त्वपूर्ण भूमिका निभाता है। कई बार ऐसा होता है कि एक परिवार की दो भाषाओं में अनुवाद बडी सरलता से हो जाता है। उदाहरणार्थ, जर्मन और इंग्लिश भाषाएं, ग्रीक परम्परा से जुडी होने के कारण परस्पर शाब्दिक लेन-देन भी कर सकती है और जहाँ वैसा सम्भव न हो वहाँ मूल ग्रीक शब्दावली से अपना शब्द बना सकती है।

प्रत्येक भाषा में वाक्य की कुछ इकाइयां होती हैं जिनसे उनकी संरचना होती है। पदों से बनने वाले वाक्यांश वाक्य के घटक बनते हैं और एक वाक्य दूसरे वाक्य के साथ समन्वय प्राप्त करके एक वाक्यता लेता है। कोई आदेश, निर्देश या उपदेश अपनी समग्र विषय-वस्तु के साथ एक महाकाव्य बन जाता है। अनुवादक को विषय वस्तु पर ध्यान रखकर शब्द योजना, वाक्य रचना और समन्वय की व्यवस्था करनी होती है। जाहिर है यह प्रश्न जितना द्विभाषकीय लगता है उससे कहीं अधिक भाव रूपान्तरण का है। भाव रूपान्तरण का सम्बन्ध सामाजिक द्विभाषकी से है। हमारे देश के संदर्भ में ऐतिहासिक दृष्टि से यह समस्या ईस्ट इण्डिया के समय से भारत में ही जन्म लेकर विकसित हुई। मैकाले के प्रयासों से भारत में अंग्रेजी की प्रशासन की भाषा होने का अवसर प्राप्त हुआ जिसके कारण प्रशासनिक कामकाज में अनुवाद शिथिल बना दिया गया था। सामान्यतया ऐसे प्रत्येक देश में अनुवाद की समस्या आती है जहाँ दो या दो से अधिक भाषाएं प्रशासन में कार्यरत होती है। स्विटजरलैंड इसका आदर्श उदाहरण है, वहाँ प्रशासन में चलने वाली तीनों भाषाएं एक ही परिवार की होने के कारण भारत के समान जटिलता नहीं उत्पन्न करतीं।

इन समस्याओं का समाधान सरल नहीं है। बहुत से शब्दों के समानार्थक शब्द दूसरी भाषा में होते ही नहीं हैं। नीम के लिए अंग्रेजी भाषा में तथा लिली के लिए हिन्दी भाषा में शब्द नहीं है। यह परेशानी तब और बढ जाती है जब प्रशासनिक शब्दावली का अनुवाद करना पडता है। ऐसे व्यक्तियों को इस तरह के अनुवाद में कृत्रिमता अनुभव होती है, जिनकी जुबान पर मूलभाषा का शब्द चढ चुका होता है। उदाहरणार्थ, यूनिवर्सिटी को सही या गलत ढंग से सभी बोल लेते हैं, कचहरी, मदरसा, फालतू आदि प्रचलित शब्द रहे हैं। पालतू पशुओं को मवेशी कहा जाता रहा है। इन और इन जैसे प्रचलित शब्दों के लिए जहाँ तक हो नये शब्दों की खोज नहीं करनी चाहिये।

सुभाष चंद्र
हिंदी अनुवादक

Translation Company

Machine Translation

"A renewed international effort is gearing up to design computers and software that smash language barriers and create a borderless global marketplace."

Machine translation (MT) is a procedure whereby a computer program analyzes a source text and produces a target text without further human involvement. In point of fact, machine translation typically does involve human intervention, in the form of pre-editing and post-editing. An exception to that rule might be, e.g., the translation of technical specifications (strings of technical terms and adjectives), using a dictionary-based machine-translation system.

So far, machine translation a major goal of natural-language processing has met with limited success. A November 6, 2007, example illustrates the hazards of uncritical reliance on machine translation. Machine translation has been brought to a large public by tools available on the Internet, such as Google, Babylon, Wikipedia etc. These tools produce a "gisting translation" a rough translation that, with luck, "gives the gist" of the source text.

With proper terminology work, with preparation of the source text for machine translation (pre-editing), and with re-working of the machine translation by a professional human translator (post-editing), commercial machine-translation tools can produce useful results, especially if the machine-translation system is integrated with a translation-memory or globalization-management system.

In regard to texts with limited ranges of vocabulary and simple sentence structure (e.g., weather reports), machine translation can deliver results that do not require much human intervention to be useful. Also, the use of a controlled language, combined with a machine-translation tool, will typically generate largely comprehensible translations.

Perspective of IT and Telecommunication Translation

Present Time is the time of Globalization. In the current scenario every country is carrying equal level of perception and thinking about its culture, state and business. Today one's loss or profit is connected to others loss or profit. One of the biggest examples of this is Economic Showdown. At this time, every country need to share there information, culture, and past experiences with another country. It’s not only benefited for their business but also it is beneficial for future steps of development and mutual growth.

Currently, there are many types of translation, but the scope of technical translation is becoming so popular that it seem difficult to assess the border. For this new software and new telecom device is being developed constantly. But the native people of other country can not understand the functionality of that device, machine. To solve it we need to render the information from one technical language to other technical language. It’s called IT/Telecom translation.

In this domain of translation there are more fields. Very first is the Hardware, It means that, when exploring any Hardware device, like HP LaserJet, other people may find it difficult to understand the ways of operating the device, most of the time they need the manual in their native language. Hence to make the manual and operating methods readable and understandable Hardware translation is needed.

Second one is Software translation, its purpose of translation is also same as above, but Web Site Localization is also an important pillar of IT/Telecom Translation Industry. As today, the use of internet is growing by the speed of light; hence giving a broad scope of exposure. For the same, every company is making their web site, and making it localized in local language. So that, people of any country know and understand them. By this, it becomes the fastest way to spread information of the company.

And the last field of this domain is Telecom Industry. In this part the content and manuals of device like Mobile, Fax machine, and Wireless get translated. Today these devices are being counted as one of the important need of human being. Irrespective of there knowledge of English or any other foreign language, they use it. But to use them, they need to understand the methods provided in the manual, and for the same they Telecom Translation is coming in use.

To make the translation easier and approachable there are many Company, Agency and Freelancers handling the translations of these fields. And Somya Translators Pvt Ltd is one of the solutions provider for all of these translation issue.

Translation process

Before I brief you the process of translation, we should first understand the meaning of translation. Translation is the process to render written or spoken source language texts to equivalent written or spoken target language texts.

At the first glance, as per the definition, it seem very easy and quick process, but in reality it is as complicated and methodological. When a project come for translation it has to go through several stages before it finally reaches to the translator. Even then it goes through more stages till its final delivery. This entire process can be sum up as the Translation Process.

The translation process includes decoding the meaning of the source text, and re-encoding or translating this meaning in the target language. Behind this simple process lies various activities like checking grammar, syntax, idioms, semantics, and the like of the source language and also the culture of its speakers. It is necessary that the translator's knowledge of the target language is more important than his knowledge of the source language.

The process, which is usually followed by all to ensure a well written, accurate translation:

The document that is to be translated is assigned to a person who is well versed with the native language is that which the document is being translated into. The document is edited by a person who is fluent in both the target and source languages. Accuracy, grammar, spelling and writing style are all checked in the editing stage. The document is proofread by a person who is fluent in both languages. It is also necessary to check spelling and layout. Finally, before the document goes to the client, the document is further rechecked to ensure that the translation is correct, there is no missing text or texts and the layout is perfect.

There are also some particular problems in the translation process: problems of ambiguity, problems that originate from structural and lexical differences between languages and multiword units like idioms and collocations. Another problem would be the grammar because there are several constructions of grammar poorly understood, in the sense that it isn't clear how they should be represented, or what rules should be used to describe them. The words that are really hard to translate are frequently the small, common words, whose precise meaning depends heavily on context. Besides, some words are untranslatable when one wishes to remain in the same grammatical category. The question of whether particular words are untranslatable is frequently debated.

Few measures can be taken to avoid and produce the best Translation. It is important that translators are familiar with the product they are translating and also with the tools they are using. The translation process is not the replacement of one word with another, but the formation of concepts in another language. Thus, each translator should have equipment and knowledge compatible with the language being translated. Translation guidelines and instructions should be provided to ensure correct translation. To ensure accurate translation, terminology glossary should also be provided to the translators.

To ensure quality we must follow this process and safety measures. After all it’s the quality and gaining clients trust that matters.

Linguistic issues with Translation

One of the distinctive properties of translation is creativity, by which we mean the ability of native speakers of a language to produce and understand new forms in their language. Even though creativity is most apparent when it comes to translation and sentence formation, it is also manifest in our lexical knowledge, where new words are added to our mental lexicon regularly.

Translation is always done in clear and grammatically correct language. Whether it is Hindi, English or any other language, it should be formed grammatically correct as well as grammatically sound. As an English to Hindi translator in Somya Translators Pvt Ltd. I would like to share some of my view on the issues we face while translating from native language to different and vise-a-versa.

Many times it had been noticed that we get so involve and used to technical translation that we forget that translation is not about translating every word, instead its all together a business of forming a whole new sentence from one language to other language conveying the same meaning. As I am not much aware of any other language I can only judge two languages, i.e. of course Hindi and English. Sometimes I do find mistranslations in articles translated in Hindi, which is probably due to insufficient knowledge on the part of the native language, but it is very rare, and I am always surprised when this happens. They do not really contain mistranslations based on misunderstanding of the original language and the technical terms are usually correct, but the target language is sometime so bad that I have to read the original text at least twice before I can figure out what the translated text means.

One of the reasons behind this is the phonological, alphabetical difference between Hindi and English and also the preposition and postposition difference in them. The Devangari script employed by Hindi contains both vowels (10) and consonants (40). Hindi is highly phonetic; i.e. the pronunciation of new words can be reliably predicted from their written form. This is in strong contrast to English. Conversely, it results in mispronouncing words that people first encounter in writing. In Hindi, objects have genders. For instance, a book is feminine and a house is masculine. Hindi uses a different word order than English. Since grammar is quite difficult with two genders, laypeople make mistakes in that regard. Also in Hindi Post-positions are used instead of Prepositions.

Translators should be aware of the fact that incorrect comprehension of a text considerably decreases the quality of the translation. Finding solutions to dilemmas is a constant in the work of the translator. This includes reading comprehension strategies for translation (underlining words, detecting translation difficulties, contextualizing lexical items, analyzing them, and so on.)

Translators should also be aware that meaning is not only conveyed by words. Hence adequate decoding and re-coding of nomenclatures, figures, tables and charts; standardized terms, acronyms, toponyms, etc. is a matter that must be properly considered.

Last, but not least, translators should observe that the essence, in terms of meaning and sense, register and style, etc., and the lay out of the original text, in terms of format, i.e. sources, paragraphs, indentation, columns, tables, etc., is properly adhered to in the translated unit.

If followed properly this can and will certainly help in providing the best translation in business.For More Information Plz visit our site here :-

Importance of Glossary in maintaining Consistency

In the field of Translation, use of glossary and maintaining consistency is the first and foremost rule. But before we move on, let’s first understand what a glossary is?

A glossary is a specialized, customized dictionary used by translators working on difficult text with specific terminology. It includes a term and its definition in the target language.

For any project to be perfect and consistent, glossary plays the important role. Apart from providing you the meaning of the words, it also gives you appropriate meaning in sync with the project. A glossary plays more vital role in industrial or technical translations then in general translation. For a general document, you can compromise with consistency sometime as the same word may mean different and they don't even have strict guidelines of maintaining consistency, but in technical or industrial translation there are norms and rules to be followed. A glossary helps you alleviate this consistency problem in this kind of translation. The glossary helps translators make sure that each time a defined key term appears, in any language, it is used consistently and correctly.

This helps maintaining the essence and true spirit of the source text. Another reason is that most translators know that names of companies, abbreviations, etc. are usually retained in English when translating documents. But a layperson will just go ahead and translate everything without considering the end reader and the accepted norms in translation. This will give a negative impression of the Translation Agency and the translator. Therefore, to ensure the translation adheres to company style guidelines and preferred terminology, for very specialized texts clients are sometimes asked to provide a glossary. The preferred terms are entered into the glossary to ensure consistency throughout a project. A glossary may also include a list of not to be translated terms, typically product names.

The glossary contains key terminology in source language and approved translations for that terminology in all your target languages. It is one of the key tools, along with a style guide and Translation Memory, to assure that all translated materials meet your quality expectations. Moreover, the glossary becomes even more important for consistency if you use more than one translation resource. This is especially true in the case of tight deadlines when many translators may be working on various elements of a project simultaneously.

By helping in eliminating uncertainty in the translation process, the glossary will enforce consistency, shorten the time it takes to translate a document, makes it easy for translators and reviewers to translate and review the document and saves effort and time, while making changes after the review.

Translation, never easy nor diffficult

Translation is the process of converting one language into another with respect to cultural, social values. It is said that “It takes less time to train an airman to become a fighter pilot than it takes to become a good translator". For Translation it is must that a translator should very well aware with both source and target language. This is why more translators are the native speakers of the required language in which translation is needed. But having knowledge of native language is not only a requirement for being a translator.

Translation is neither very difficult work to do but on the other hand it is not also very easier to do.

What is Translation?

Translation is the transmittal of written text from one language into another. Translation Refers to the written language, and is the action of interpretation of the meaning of a text, and subsequent production of an equivalent text that communicates the same message in another language. The text to be translated is called the source text, and the language it is to be translated into is called the target language.

Translation must take into account constraints that include context, the rules of grammar of the two languages, their writing conventions, and their idioms. A common misconception is that there exists a simple word-for-word correspondence between any two languages, and that translation is a straightforward mechanical process. A word-for-word translation does not take into account context, grammar, conventions, and idioms.

Some of the definitions of Translation are:

• a written communication in a second language having the same meaning as the written communication in a first language
• a uniform movement without rotation
• transformation: the act of changing in form or shape or appearance; "a photograph is a translation of a scene onto a two-dimensional surface"
• (mathematics) a transformation in which the origin of the coordinate system is moved to another position but the direction of each axis remains the same
• (genetics) the process whereby genetic information coded in messenger RNA directs the formation of a specific protein at a ribosome in the cytoplasm
• rewording something in less technical terminology

How to translate?

As we already discussed that translation needs that a translator should have fluent and accurate knowledge of both the source and target languages. Although before doing translation one should remember few technical aspects also like consistency, accuracy, grammar, vocabulary, glossary etc.

Before starting translation important aspects to remember are:-
• Go through the whole translatable document, i.e. Source
• Check the content given, whether the content is complete or incomplete.
• Understand the theme of the content
• Check whether any terminology has been provided or not.
• Check for glossary
• Read the instructions provided.
• If anything is unclear, or have any query, contact the job provider for accurate details.

Only after going through all the above mentioned points, start translating the document. While translating the document also consider these points:
• Translate the document as per the meaning.
• Please avoid word-for-word translation.
• Maintain consistency.
• Follow the glossary provided.
• Do the translation as per instructions.
• Use easy to understand language.
• Follow grammar strictly.
• Use proper words and
• Avoid using bookish language.

Translation, when practiced by relatively bilingual individuals but especially when by persons with limited proficiency in one or both languages, involves a risk of spilling-over of idioms and usages from the source language into the target language.

The art of translation is as old as written literature. Since the Industrial Revolution, developments in technology, communications and business have changed translation greatly. In particular, the advent of the Internet has greatly expanded the market for translation and introduced a vast array of new tools and types of work.

Once the activity of a relatively small group of clerics, scholars, it is now a profession with accredited schools, professional associations, and accepted standards and pay scales. Translators, professional as well as amateur, have thus played an important role in the evolution of languages and cultures.

Difference between Hindi and Urdu

Linguists think of Hindi and Urdu as the same language, the difference being that Hindi is written in Devanagari and draws vocabulary from Sanskrit, while Urdu is written in Persian script and draws on Persian and Arabic.

Hindi is closely related to Urdu, the main language of Pakistan, which is written with the Arabic script, and linguists consider Standard Hindi and Standard Urdu to be different formal registers both derived from the Khari Boli dialect, which is also known as Hindustani.

The separation is largely a political one; before the partition of India into India and Pakistan, spoken Hindi and Urdu were considered the same language, Hindustani. Apart from the difference in writing systems, the other main difference between Hindi and Urdu is that Hindi contains more vocabulary from Sanskrit, while Urdu contains more vocabulary from Persian.

Hindi Translators

Hindi, the second most spoken language

Hindi is the second most spoken language in the world, after Chinese. About 500 million people speak Hindi, in India and abroad, and the total number of people who can understand the language may be 800 million. The constitution of India (Article 343) recognizes Hindi as the official language of India. Hindi is also the main language in many states of India such as Haryana, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Uttaranchal/ Uttarakhand, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh and Himachal Pradesh. It is spoken by more than 487 million people in the world. The other dialects of Hindi are Brajbhasha, Bundeli, Awadhi, Marwari, Maithili, and Bhojpuri, to name only a few.

Total speakers  487 million
Official language of  India

India  363,839,000
Bangladesh  346,000
Belize   8, 455
Botswana  2000
Germany  24,500
Nepal   170, 997
New Zealand  11,200
Philippines  2,415
Singapore  5000
South Africa   890, 292
Uganda   147, 000
United Kingdom   243 000
USA  26,253
Yemen   65, 000
Total  487,000,000

Clearly there's only one Hindi language, but as in most countries different sections of the population will have different phrases and use of language. Hindi can be traced back to as early as the seventh or eighth century. The dialect that has been chosen as the official language is Khariboli in the Devnagari script. Other dialects of Hindi are Brajbhasa, Bundeli, Awadhi, Marwari, Maithili and Bhojpuri.

It was in the 10th century that authentic Hindi poetry took its form and since then it has been constantly modified. History of Hindi literature as a whole can be divided into four stages: Adikal (the Early Period), Bhaktikal (the Devotional Period), Ritikal (the Scholastic Period) and Adhunikkal (the Modern Period).

Hindi is an Indo-Aryan language with about 487 million speakers. It is one of the official languages of India and is the main language used in the northern states of Rajasthan, Delhi, Haryana, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Himachal Pradesh, Jharkhand and Bihar, and is spoken in much of north and central India alongside other languages such as Punjabi, Gujarati, Marathi or Bengali. In other parts of India, as well as in Nepal, Bangladesh and Pakistan, Hindi is understood. In Fiji people of Indian origin speak Hindi, and in some areas the Fijian people also speak it.

History of the Hindi Language Hindi shares with English and most other European languages the same ancestral roots. They evolved from a language thought to have been spoken in Central Asia around 5,000 BC, called by linguists the Indo-European parent language. For this reason and because of the 200-year influence of the British in India, many basic words in Hindi are the same as or similar to their equivalent in English. English words of Hindi origin include cot, loot, thug, chintz, bandanna, dungaree, rajali, pundit, coolie, tom-tom, and juggernaut.

Hindi first started to be used in writing during the 4th century AD. It was originally written with the Brahmi script but since the 11th century AD it has been written with the Devanāgarī alphabet. The first printed book in Hindi was John Gilchrist's Grammar of the Hindoostanee Language which was published in 1796.

Hindi language has its roots in the classical Sanskrit language. The language acquired its current form over many centuries, and numerous dialectical variations still exist. Like Sanskrit, Hindi is written in the Dev Nagari script, which is common to several other Indian languages as well. Much of the vocabulary of Hindi comes from Sanskrit, though Hindi also has a special relationship with Urdu. Their grammar and much of their vocabulary are virtually identical.

The development of Hindi into a national language had its beginnings in the colonial period, when the British began to cultivate it as a standard among government officials. Later it was used for literary purposes and has since become the vehicle for some excellent prose and poetry.
After independence of India, the Government of India worked on standardizing Hindi.
In 1954, the Government of India set up a Committee for preparing a grammar of Hindi. The committee's report was later released as "A Basic Grammar of Modern Hindi" in 1958.
Hindi became the official language of India on January 26, 1965, although English and 21 other languages are recognized as official languages by the Constitution of India.

Vowels and vowel diacritics



Monday, January 11, 2010

Style guide Creation for Assamese Language (Part II)

Morphology and grammar
The Assamese language has the following characteristic morphological features.
1. Gender and number are not grammatically marked.
2. There is lexical distinction of gender in the third person pronoun.
3. Transitive verbs are distinguished from intransitive.
4. The agentive case is overtly marked as distinct from the accusative.
5. Kinship nouns are inflected for personal pronominal possession.
6. Adverbs can be derived from the verb roots.
7. A passive construction may be employed idiomatically.

The Assamese phonetic inventory consists of eight oral vowel phonemes, three nasalized vowel phonemes, fifteen diphthongs (two nasalized diphthongs) and twenty-one consonant phonemes.
The parts of speech uses in Assamese languageNoun1. Common Noun ---- Man, cow
2. Proper Noun ----- Ram, Rahim, Hari
3. Material Noun ---- Water, Box, Table
4. Verbal Noun ----- Movement, tour
5. Abstract Noun ----- Happiness, beautyPronoun
Example ------ he, she, they, yesterday, now

1. Proper Adjective ----- beautiful, ugly
2. Verbal Adjective ----- edited, drawn
3. Adjective Adjective ---- Very much, too much, too many
4. Adverb ---- quickly, repeatedly

1. Transitive ---- eat, get
2. Intransitive ---- walk, cry

Wednesday, January 6, 2010

Style Guide Creation for Assamese Language - Part I

Assamese is an eastern Indo-Aryan language spoken by about 20 million people in the Indian states of Assam, Meghalaya and Arunachal Pradesh, and also spoken in Bangladesh and Bhutan. Assamese is closely related to Bengali and Oriya.

The Assamese alphabet is written with a version of the Bengali alphabet. The first printed book was Atmaram Sarma’s translation of the Bible, which published in 1813 by the Serampore English Missionary press in Kolkatta.

The first Assamese dictionary was compiled by an American Baptist Missionary Dr. Miles Bronson. In 1867 at American Baptist Mission Press Sibsagar, published his dictionary. The second dictionary of Assamese language is ‘Hemkosh’ based on Sanskrit spellings, compiled by Hemchandra Barua.


The Assamese script has 41 consonants and 11 Vowels. The Assamese script has 52 characters including 41 consonants and 11 vowels. The characters are similar to the Devanagari. The language has a number of Juktakhars which are combination of consonants.

Assamese alphabet
Vowels and vowel diacritics


Some conjunct consonants (Juktakhar)

Additional symbols