Friday, March 26, 2010

अनुवाद तथा शब्‍द चयन

कोई भी प्राणी किसी भी कार्य में जन्‍मजात पारंगत नहीं होता है। वह जन्‍म के बाद ही सीखना शुरू करता है तथा आजीवन सीखता ही रहता है। जब वह मृत्‍यु को प्राप्त होता है तो अपने बाद की पीढ़ी के लिए सीखने की प्रेरणा बन जाता है। ठीक इसी पद्धति पर आधारित है हमारी अनुवाद शैली। अनुवाद करना तो सभी जानते हैं और अपने आप में सर्वश्रेष्ठ अनुवाद भी करते हैं, लेकिन ऐसा अनुवादक विरला ही होगा जिसके लिए लोग कहते हों कि वह सर्वश्रेष्ठ अनुवादक है, कोई भी उससे उचित अनुवाद नहीं कर सकता है। इसका कारण उसका बौद्धिक ज्ञान अथवा कार्यकुशलता नहीं बल्‍कि शब्‍द चयन होता है।

किसी भी भाषा में एक शब्‍द के कई अर्थ अथवा पर्याय होते हैं और सभी अपने आप में तार्किक होते हैं, लेकिन अपने अनुवाद में उपयुक्त शब्‍दों का चयन कर उचित वाक्‍य संरचना करना ही अनुवाद शैली है। कोई व्‍यक्ति इस कला को जीवनपर्यन्त सीखता ही रहता है, क्योंकि यह एक आजीवन चलने वाली प्रक्रिया है। इस कला को विकसित करने के लिए पर्याप्त समय तथा कठिन परिश्रम की आवश्यकता होती है। यह सर्वविदित है कि किसी शब्‍द चयन को सही ठहराने के लिए आपके पास अधिक संख्‍या में तर्क भी होने चाहिए, क्योंकि आपके शब्‍द चयन को गलत ठहराने के लिए समीक्षक का मात्र एक अधिक तर्क भी पर्याप्त है। इसलिए किसी भी अनुवादक को सदैव प्रयासरत होना चाहिए कि वह नवीनतम तथा यथासंभव शब्‍द भिन्‍नताओं को समझे और उसे अपने अनुवाद में प्रयुक्त भी करे। इसके लिए यह आवश्यक है कि वह कभी पढ़ना न छोड़े।

Hindi Translator

Monday, March 22, 2010

Translator: A Puppet or Einstein!

Is a Translator a puppet or an einstein? As a translator do you want to be counted as a person who solely follows the glossary and terminology and give damn about the other things and make the translation dreadfully prosaic or we want to be simply like Shakespeare, The Master of Words!

In my opinion a translator should be a mixture of both Einstein and Shakespeare i.e. he should be inventive like Einstein and innovative like Shakespeare.

Since scope of Translation Services is vast and it is the requirement of almost every single sector, from business catalog, pamphlets, manuals to games guide, movie, subtitling etc., thus it is very important to maintain the rhyme and essentials of the project from beginning till the end, and still make it easy for the user to read. Most translation when taken out of context becomes more difficult to understand. It’s not the translators fault but he is certainly the one to be blamed for. It’s not his fault as he was just following the basic translation rules but his fault is that he only followed the glossary and ignored what the source is actually expressing. Sometimes some words and phrases are used as a references for which we should write appropriate word and phrases that convey the same meaning in target language. For this one has to be either sensible enough to put the suitable phrase in target language or skilled enough to play with words and form the same meaning with the same expression.

As a translator, we are bound with so many norms and rules like ‘following this and that’; which is necessary of course but the question is till what extend… Because of this incertitude, a question always come to my mind that when bounded with the rules, does a translator ever get the opportunity to open up and show his creative and ingenious professional side!

The answer is creativity can never be caged. If you have creativity and know to use it with words then one day it will surely going to get noticed. But, it’s up to you and will always be, whether you want to use it with your creativity and beautify it or let the machines overpower your sensibility.

All you need to remember is…

Never let anything prevent you from doing what is right…

This quote should not be taken as a kick against action but should be taken as a simple truth that rights can never be wrong. Of course to maintain consistency throughout the project you got to follow glossary and terminology etc. But if you feel that you can give it a better shape, even if you have to include words not present in source or exclude words from source, then why not. And, if the creativity has been used in the right manner without hindering the glossary, then Bingo!! You Got it.

Translation is just as creative as writing a film script, rather than making it complicated for us, all we need to do is to play with words rather than becoming a puppet of glossaries. Remember we created the glossaries and we can always make it work our way.

Importance of Reputation for Freelance Translators

Your personal reputation is one of the most valuable things that we will own regardless of where we are of what we do. It is something that is with you always, affects parts of your daily life and is very difficult to change.

A good Freelance Translator provides good quality of work and they work to mutually agreed deadlines. The saying goes ‘a salesman is only as good as his last sale’. A similar saying could also be applied to translators. ‘A translator is only as good as their last translation’. In both circumstances there is the detail to consider.

A Freelance Translator generally seeks a situation where they have a regular client base who considers them first. Ideally, if they are too busy the client will still come to them first for the next project and the next project. Reputation for a freelancer allows them to earn better rates even though there will always be someone else offering to do the same job for less money. It allows the freelance translator to discuss the issues of a project openly with the client or Translation Project Manager and have them work with them to complete their service.

The reputation of a freelance translator can be most easily maintained by:

1.Staying within their capabilities: - It is not advisable to take on highly complicated specialised texts that you have no experience with unless you have discussed this with your client and have a clear plan how you will complete the project. Otherwise you might perform below what is reasonable.

2.Work to deadlines: - Ensure that you assess the deadline and only agree to what is achievable. If you are upfront and say when the translation can be achievable this may well turnout fine and avoid loss of your personal standards for quality.

3.Check your work: - It is advisable to take a short break and then review your translation before you send. You may have made some simple error or missed something that this last scan can pick up. This will also avoid you sending the wrong file. Checking you own work is not proofreading. Proofreading in my opinion involves a 2nd independent translator.

4.Problems: – If you have a problem or require extra time it is important to tell the client ASAP. This allows the issue to be addressed as soon as possible and a solution found. The problem might be legibility of part of the source text or you might be delayed due to a personal problem. If possible, the more warning notice the better for everybody.

Meaning of Translation

Translation is, above all, an activity that aims at conveying meaning or meanings of a given-linguistic discourse from one language to another, rather than the words or grammatical structures of the original. The meaning of a given word or set of words is best understood as the contribution that word or phrase can make to the meaning or function of the whole sentence or linguistic utterance where that word or phrase occurs. The meaning of a given word is governed not only by the external object or idea that particular word is supposed to refer to, but also by the use of that particular word or phrase in a particular way, in a particular context, and to a particular effect.

Translation requires a high standard of knowledge of a language and a meticulous approach to words and processing text. Many specialise in specific fields such as legal or medical texts. Translators also usually only translate into their native language. A translator would need a high degree of fluency to translate out of their native language, as no matter how long you’ve lived in a country, there will always be forms of the language you don’t know.

Use of Dictionary

As a language learner you should never be far from a good dictionary. Learn how to use it properly and you will enrich your language skills. Besides using your dictionary as a quick reference book for words you’re not sure about, use it as a source of increasing your knowledge of how your new language works. This doesn’t mean you need to read it from cover to cover. However you should understand how your bi-lingual dictionary works.

Familiarise yourself with the list of abbreviations usually found at the front of the dictionary. You should also find grammar tips, verb tables, cultural notes, pronunciation tips, numbers, weights and measures and times and dates. Knowing how to find these quickly can be very useful to the language learner.

In the middle of a good language dictionary there is often a section on common language phrases. This will be split into categories such as: job applications, commercial correspondence, opinions, likes and dislikes, the telephone and e-mail. Use this section to improve your language skills. Many people don’t even know it’s there!

Difficulties with translation

Despite having the support of a good dictionary, it’s always a good idea to try and ‘stretch’ your language skills. When you come across a word you don’t know don’t automatically turn to the dictionary. By all means use it as a back up to check words, but first of all try and get the meaning of the word.

Look at the whole context of the paragraph and see if it gives you any clues. Consider the tense of the word. It may be a familiar verb in a tense you don’t recognise. Try and take a step back and look at the meaning of the text you are trying to translate, to see if the unfamiliar words fall into place. This method doesn’t always work, but when it does it’s much more satisfying then turning the pages of a dictionary.

Translation Services in india

Role and status of Translators and Interpreters

In the colonial context, we find translators and interpreters, but particularly interpreters taking on an amazing range of responsibilities which go far beyond linguistic mediation. Interpreters in the colonial context acted as guides, explorers, brokers, diplomats, ambassadors and advisers on Indian or local affairs; that is why they were sometimes branded as traitors, because they were indispensable to the colonial authorities. In other contexts, too, translators and interpreters, in oral traditions such as the African tradition were expected to act as spokesmen for their communities, not just as linguistic mediators. In the eighteenth century in Turkey, the duty of the Naval Dragoman included the supervision of the collection of taxes from non-Muslim subjects, though later on the 1839 Tanzimat limited his responsibility to interpreting again, i.e. strictly linguistic mediation.

In terms of status, the highest status attained by translators and interpreters seems to have been linked to the profession being hereditary, as in the case of the 'wise men' in the oral tradition of Africa, who passed on their skills to their sons. Other examples include the TSUJIIS in Japan, who exercised family monopolies on interpreting in this area from the seventeenth century until the end of Japan's isolation in the second half of the nineteenth century. There are also the Greek Phanariots in Turkey in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, who similarly had sole control of the profession. All these groups were highly regarded by their communities and earned a very respectable living.


Another interesting area worth investigating concerns the use of Interpreters in contexts where we very rarely see them used today. The role of interpreters in educational contexts is of entry on the Hungarian tradition to bring it up to date, following the unfortunate death of Dr. Gyorgy Rado in 1994. Sara Laviosa-Braithwaite provided invaluable support as my Research Assistant for practically the whole of 1995. Juan Sager helped edit a number of entries in the summer of 1996, and Kirsten Malmkjaer stepped in later that summer to give the editing a final push.

Even with so much good will and generous assistance from a large number of people, there are bound to be some errors and infelicities, given the scope of the enterprise.

In the view of aforementioned description, the Translators as well as the interpreters are playing an important role in the society while they are called traitor. However, their role neither ignored nor be abolished from the society because of their role for the society. They are the indiscernible part of the society.For more Information Plz visit our Website here :-

Subtitling: A Real Art...

When we talk about what subtitling is, we can say in simple words that it is a printed translation. Which surely is true, but what if we take it as an art. You’ll not agree with me on the first place. When given some deep thoughts to it, nobody can deny the importance and skills required to be a subtitler.

On a simple note subtitling is one of the several processes commonly used in the translation of audio-visual products. It can be in the form of captions or simple subtitles shown at the bottom on the screen.

Subtitling is much cheaper than dubbing, and it takes less time, so it is common in smaller countries for which the audience is too small to justify dubbing on a large scale.

Now lets discuss it further.

From a linguistic point of view, subtitling can be divided into two types: a) Intralingual subtitling, also known as captioning, which is primarily aimed at the deaf and hard of hearing, but also extremely useful for people learning a foreign language; b) Interlingual subtitling, the spoken/written message of the original product which is translated into the language of the target audience. From technical point of view it can again be of two type: a) Open Subtitling, which refers to subtitles that appear permanently on screen and cannot be ‘switched off’ by the viewer; b) Closed subtitles, which the viewer can choose to see or not.

Translation of Subtitling is sometimes very different from the translation of written text. Usually, when a film or a TV program is subtitled, the subtitler watches the picture and listens to the audio sentence by sentence. As subtitling doesn’t just mean to translate the dialogue, thus other meaningful language in films such as signs, letters, captions and other written words are also an important area needed to be considered upon. When a film has lots of written language and dialogue happening together, this can result in some very difficult choices for the subtitler.The subtitler may or may not have access to a written transcript of the dialog. Especially in commercial subtitles, the subtitler often interprets what is meant, rather than translating how it is said, i.e. meaning being more important than form. The subtitler does this when the dialog must be condensed in order to achieve an acceptable reading speed.

The subtitler’s task is already difficult because subtitles are so limited in space (about 37 characters per line, and a maximum of two lines) and time (subtitles should not stay on the screen longer than six seconds). The result is that the content of the dialogue has to be cut down to fit in the subtitles. Not only that, but the content has to be translated, and the subtitles also have to be ‘spotted’ or timed carefully to match the dialogue.

The basic aim of any Translation is to reformulate a source language message in a given target language, avoiding at all costs any misunderstandings in the process. In other translation practices mistakes can easily pass unnoticed, but this is rarely the case in a mode of translation as uniquely vulnerable as subtitling. Hence it will no be incorrect to project subtitling as another real art form of contemporary time.

Tips for Translation

There is no need to explain what translation means in our everyday non-professional understanding. It is a process when a text – be it oral or written - created in one language is transferred into another language. But translation has never been just a word for word substitution – it is a difficult and creative process that requires real professionals with a wide experience in Translation Industry. It is the language differences that made people resort to this hard yet vitally important job and made the translation itself one of the oldest occupations in the world. Different cultures, mentalities, levels of development, traditions – all of them come forward when a need arises to translate. It is easy to make oneself lost in this ever-changing world of words and meanings.

Many people believe that translation is an easy thing and all you have to do is to change words from the source text into the equivalent words of a target text. However, this is not true since some phrases, if translated literally, would make no sense.

Translation is a very complicated process which has to consider many factors - the genre and the style of the original text, the translator's competence, and the timeline allocated to the project and many more. There are a great number of useful translation tips available online and offline, yet every translator have their own reliable methods and techniques, built on expertise and time. Here, are few of the most essential translation tips that can come in handy both for the oral translation and the written translation.

Oral Translation Tips

Interpreting - simultaneous, consecutive and whispering - is considered to be the most difficult type of translation. To achieve great results in this domain, an interpreter is expected to have a high level of competence in different areas, to understand and critically analyse the translated information, to know how to highlight the key elements in the text, to constantly enrich their professional vocabulary, etc. The personal features of an interpreter - such as a quick reaction, clear articulation, and bright mind - are also of great importance.

The most essential interpretation tips are as follows:

  • In advance familiarize yourself with the topic of the speech
  • Note down main points of the speech – it will help you when interpreting
  • Translate and clarify the meaning of special terms and key words prior to interpreting
  • Establish friendly relations between you and the speaker at a consecutive interpretation
  • Remember to pronounce words distinctly and clearly
  • Produce a brief summary at the end of the speech - it helps to clarify conclusions
  • React quickly and be ready to work under pressure
  • Enjoy what you are doing - there won't be a second chance
  • Transmit a clear message to the target audience.

Friday, March 12, 2010

Work, in Translation Industry

A glimpses of work in translation Industry

The Job: Translator/ Interpreter

The Nature of the Work: Translators and interpreters work fluidly with languages, but their responsibilities differ. Translators work with printed copy. Interpreters specialize in the spoken word and serve as liaisons between two parties, such as a doctor and patient or defendant and attorney. They typically must consider ethical obligations; translators often have to massage copy to make sense of pop culture references. "Being bilingual isn't enough," says Judy Jenner, who co-founded Twin Translations with her sister. "We have to shape a message to an international audience."

The Pay: Many jobs are free-lance. Interpreters can earn between $15 and $30 per hour, according to Common Sense Advisory, a Boston-based research firm. Translations are paid per word. Ms. Jenner, for example, charges 24 to 27 cents per word, depending on the skill level. Savvy translators can earn six figures per year, says Milena Savova, academic director of the department of foreign languages, translating and interpreting at New York University. Full-time staff at language-services firms earn from $40,000 to $60,000, according to a recent survey from the Globalization and Localization Association, a language-services trade group.

The Hours: Hours are often flexible. Ms. Jenner, who lives in Las Vegas, says she completes her assignments while lounging by the pool. Her twin sister and fellow translator/interpreter works from Austria. Elizabeth Chegezy, a translator and interpreter in Philadelphia, says free-lancers can work as much or as little as they like. However, she warns that the high-paced role technology plays in the business means some clients will demand unreasonable deadlines. At language-services firms, business hours are the norm.

The Benefits: Free-lancers are responsible for their own health-care and retirement-savings plans. At language-services firms, traditional health-care packages are common, as are retirement-savings programs.

Globalization and Localization Association Website Becomes Industry Portal

The Globalization and Localization Association (GALA) has completely updated its website to offer more resources for members and the industry.

One of the major new features is the Knowledge Center. In addition to a wealth of articles, case studies, and survey data, the Knowledge Center includes the association’s quarterly GALAxy newsletter, its job board and its updated Language Technology & Services Directory. The searchable directory offers users easy access to information on vendors around the world.

Another new feature is the Localization Overview, which lives within the Knowledge Center. Developed by industry experts, the overview is a first stop for anyone who wants more information on taking products and services global. It covers everything from definitions of localization and internationalization to localization technologies to working with localization vendors.

“We have made the website a portal to be used by our members and their customers for greater knowledge,” said Laura Brandon, GALA Association Manager. “Our goal is to make it the premier resource in the language and localization industry.”

Saturday, January 16, 2010

Quality Ways For the Translation

As all the countries of the world, to fulfill there financial need, coming together irrespective of there political boundaries and, to help people come together and carry same perspective for one target, these countries are taking help of translation to let the world know about there historical articles, scriptures and texts.

Technique can also not ignore the need importance of translation today. Especially, as in current times its position and situation clearly shows that its field will keep on growing. Because of this, many people are making translation as there professional.

But translation is not a piece of cake… It’s a process of dedication and complete lexical knowledge. As far as those people are concerned, who think that mere knowledge of some languages can make it easy to translate a language from another language, they are not correct. As the transferring a life from its habitat, effects on its efficiency and habits, as translation of a creation of a language definitely affects its original existence. Most of the time, is has been seen that, some translation of a creation is very awkward.

For removing this type of problem here are some step must be taken:-

First of all, we should well understand the topic or document is being given for translation. Doing many kind of research, can be helped to understand the sole of the source. After understanding the sole, we can do the translation very much closer to existing translation. Then we can start the Translation. After completing the translation, we must re-review our own translation. As we know Human being is the statue of mistakes. That’s why it is absolutely sure that we can do mistakes, and by this way we can remove these kind mistakes by our self.

Secondly, we should send our translation to the Editor, for editing and Review. It will bring upon qualitative changes in your translation by removing grammatical and stylistically errors.
After this, we must send the edited and reviewed translation to the reviewer for final review. It is very much important role in translation. Because the reviewer find out the miner mistakes, preferential changes from the translation.

After the completion of above steps, we can say the translation has been completed. But even we must send the file to the Final revision and detailed explanation. So that we can be satisfied with the translation and further argues.

Following these steps while translation, Improve the Quality and Sole of an Existing Creation and can be satisfied with Our Own work.

Translation : Art or Science

Since time immemorial, human beings have yearned for knowledge. Inventions of fire by flinting two stones and then of wheel, were the most revolutionary inventions of history. These inventions led human beings settle down in a group, making the framework of a society. With the formation of society came the apparent urge of acquiring knowledge and sharing it. In today’s world, communication between different nations with different languages is feasible through translation.

Translation is putting some content into the words of a different language; maintaining the spirit of the source language. In the same way, Pinhhuck (1977: 38) defines translation as "a process of finding a Target Language equivalent of the Source Language.

Is translation a scientific study or artistic endeavor, researchable theory or technical craft, a branch of linguistics or of literature? Being utilized as a means to act as a bridge between two cultures, translation seems to be a complicated and multi-faceted activity or phenomenon.

According to Benjamin (1923), the twentieth century has been called the age of 'reproduction' or, as Jumplet (1923) points out 'the age of translation' (as cited in Newmark, 1988a:1); however, the constant debate as to whether translation is an art or science has a long history. Some scholars may argue that translation is a process of creative thinking; consequently, it is subjective and cannot be systematized by laws.

As Savory (1957:49) claim, "it would almost be true to say that there are no universally accepted principles of translation, because the only people qualified to formulate them have never agreed among themselves"; therefore, he does not tend to consider translation as a science.

According to Kelly (1979:51), Hieronymus (also known as St. Jerome, 4th century A.D) as well as others followed Cicero's 9106-43 B.C) claim constantly that translation was a branch of oratory, and Holmes (1979a:23), specifying two branches of translation studies, namely pure and applied, points out that the aim of pure translation studies is to describe the phenomenon of translation and to investigate all related aspects of it; however, applied translation studies focus on the application of translation theories to such aspects of translation as translation practice, the teaching and learning of translation.

He believes that all factions of translation are interrelated and their relationship is dialectical; however, Toury (1995:7) puts forward that the relationship between pure and applied translation studies is unidirectional--theoretical studies serve as a nurturing source for the applied studies. Furthermore, Toury (1982:7) believes that translation, as a cognitive science, has to reach beyond linguistics, and calls it "interdisciplinary"; consequently, it seems that he considers translation a science. This science seems to be warmly welcomed by some scholars in the form of 'word for word.' For instance, Norton (1984:59) quotes Horace (65-8 B.C) to state that, "it is the duty of a faithful interpreter to translate what he undertakes word for word."

Nevertheless, Chukovskii (1984:93) does not take translation into consideration as a science when he confirms that, "translation is not only an art, but a high art." Moreover, Newmark (1988a), referring to translation as "a craft" Some scholars consider translation a science. Though the most salient features of a field of science are precision and predictability, Berkeley (1991:83) notes that some sciences, principally those dealing with the humanities, do not attain a one hundred percent predictability level. However, Baker (1998:4) points out that translation is a separate academic discipline which, "like any young discipline, needs to draw on the findings and theories of the other related disciplines in order to develop and formulate its own methods." Nevertheless, distinguishing between science and translation, Karra (2000:1) writes that "my colleagues never understood why I chose the world of translation over science."

Translation is an art, not a science; like most arts, it is a lot more complicated than it looks. (Translation, 2005:2)

Translation studies can be regarded as a science. However, if we take the product of translation into account, it seems rational to think of it as a craft or art. Whether translation is regarded as a science, art, or craft, it seems significant to note that a good translation should play the same role in the TL as the original did in the SL.

अनुवाद की समस्याएं और चुनौतियां

अनुवाद की प्रामाणिकता, भाषा और सटीकता पर प्रश्नचिह्न लगाए जाने के बावजूद यह स्पष्ट है कि अनुवाद वर्तमान समाज की अत्यन्त महत्त्वपूर्ण आवश्यकता बन गया है। इसी कारण आज अनुवाद पर स्वतंत्र विधा के रूप में विचार किया जा रहा है। वर्तमान वैज्ञानिक तथा औद्योगिक उन्नति तथा संचार और क्रान्ति के युग में अनुवाद और भी अधिक महत्त्वपूर्ण हो गया है। टेक्नोलॉजी तथा सूचना के क्षेत्र में प्रत्येक राष्ट्र और समाज शीघ्रातिशीघ्र उन्नति के लिए प्रयासरत है। आज के प्रतिस्पर्धात्मक युग में यह अनिवार्य हो गया है कि विभिन्न भाषाओं में तुरन्त अनुवाद की व्यवस्था उपलब्ध हो। आधुनिक सामाजिक व्यवस्था में त्वरित अनुवाद के महत्त्व को देखते हुए कम्प्यूटरीकृत अनुवाद के क्षेत्र में भी अनुसंधान किए जा रहे हैं।

आमतौर से, एक भाषा की किसी सामग्री का दूसरी भाषा में रूपान्तर ही अनुवाद है। इस तरह अनुवाद का कार्य है - एक भाषा में व्यक्त विचारों को दूसरी भाषा में व्यक्त करना है। लेकिन इसे व्यक्त करना सरल काम नहीं है। हर एक भाषा की अपनी विशेषताएं होती हैं, जो अन्य भाषा से कुछ या पूर्णतः भिन्न होती है। अनुवाद करते समय अनुवादक को यह ध्यान रखना होगा कि मूल भाषा के भाव को अनूदित भाषा में पूर्णतः उतारा गया हो। पूर्णतः भाव का मतलब है कि मूल भाषा की सामग्री व अनूदित भाषा की सामग्री पढने से यह प्रतीत नहीं होना चाहिए कि यह अनूदित कृति है। कम से कम मूल भाषा व स्रोत भाषा में निकटता होनी चाहिए। समानता की यह निकटता जितनी अधिक होती है, अनुवाद उतना ही अच्छा और सफल होता है।

अनुवाद की समस्या द्विभाषकीय है, इसके लिये उन दो भाषाओं का पूर्ण ज्ञान अपेक्षित है जिससे और जिसमें अनुवाद होता है। यह समस्या मूलतः दुभाषिये की है। इसका तात्पर्य यह है कि अनुवादक का दो भाषाओं पर इतना अधिकार होना चाहिये कि वह दोनों पक्षों का ठीक-ठीक ज्ञान रखते हुए संबोधित कर सके और समझा सके। भाषा का एक स्वभाव बन जाता है जिसे संस्कार कहते हैं। अनुवाद शैली से विजातीय भाषा को सीखकर मनुष्य धीरे-धीरे स्वभाव अर्जित करता है और अभ्यास बन जाने पर वह कभी-कभी अपने आपको दो नावों पर सवार अनुभव करता है।

अभ्यस्त भाषाम में, हमारा ध्यान लिखने, पढने और बोलने में उन कठिनाइयों की ओर नहीं जाता जो भाषा की संरचना से जुड़ी होत हीं। भावनाओं का प्रकाशन स्वतः प्रवाह में होता चलता है। हम धारा के किसी क्षण में रुककर तल में अन्तर्निहित भावना को देखने का प्रयास नहीं करते। यह तथ्य सजातीय भाषा के लिए अत्यन्त स्वाभाविक है। इसकी समस्या स्वभाषा अनुवाद परिभाषा को विजातीय भाषा की शब्दावली को स्वभाषा में व्यक्त करना है। इसके लिए उस भाषा की भावना का ज्ञान अपेक्षित होता है। उसके अनन्तर उसी के समकक्ष भाव और विचार व्यक्त करने वाले शब्द या वाक्य को स्वभाषा में खोजना पडता है। अनुवाद की वही मूल समस्या है।

भाषा वैज्ञानिक दृष्टि से अनुवाद की समस्या के दो पहलू हैं। एक है द्विभाषकीय रूपान्तरण और दूसरा है भाव रूपान्तरण। दोनों एक दूसरे के पूरक होकर आते हैं। द्विभाषकीय शैली से किया हुआ अनुवाद शुद्ध रूप मंल शब्दानुवाद होता है, जिसमें तुलनात्मक भाषा विज्ञान महत्त्वपूर्ण भूमिका निभाता है। कई बार ऐसा होता है कि एक परिवार की दो भाषाओं में अनुवाद बडी सरलता से हो जाता है। उदाहरणार्थ, जर्मन और इंग्लिश भाषाएं, ग्रीक परम्परा से जुडी होने के कारण परस्पर शाब्दिक लेन-देन भी कर सकती है और जहाँ वैसा सम्भव न हो वहाँ मूल ग्रीक शब्दावली से अपना शब्द बना सकती है।

प्रत्येक भाषा में वाक्य की कुछ इकाइयां होती हैं जिनसे उनकी संरचना होती है। पदों से बनने वाले वाक्यांश वाक्य के घटक बनते हैं और एक वाक्य दूसरे वाक्य के साथ समन्वय प्राप्त करके एक वाक्यता लेता है। कोई आदेश, निर्देश या उपदेश अपनी समग्र विषय-वस्तु के साथ एक महाकाव्य बन जाता है। अनुवादक को विषय वस्तु पर ध्यान रखकर शब्द योजना, वाक्य रचना और समन्वय की व्यवस्था करनी होती है। जाहिर है यह प्रश्न जितना द्विभाषकीय लगता है उससे कहीं अधिक भाव रूपान्तरण का है। भाव रूपान्तरण का सम्बन्ध सामाजिक द्विभाषकी से है। हमारे देश के संदर्भ में ऐतिहासिक दृष्टि से यह समस्या ईस्ट इण्डिया के समय से भारत में ही जन्म लेकर विकसित हुई। मैकाले के प्रयासों से भारत में अंग्रेजी की प्रशासन की भाषा होने का अवसर प्राप्त हुआ जिसके कारण प्रशासनिक कामकाज में अनुवाद शिथिल बना दिया गया था। सामान्यतया ऐसे प्रत्येक देश में अनुवाद की समस्या आती है जहाँ दो या दो से अधिक भाषाएं प्रशासन में कार्यरत होती है। स्विटजरलैंड इसका आदर्श उदाहरण है, वहाँ प्रशासन में चलने वाली तीनों भाषाएं एक ही परिवार की होने के कारण भारत के समान जटिलता नहीं उत्पन्न करतीं।

इन समस्याओं का समाधान सरल नहीं है। बहुत से शब्दों के समानार्थक शब्द दूसरी भाषा में होते ही नहीं हैं। नीम के लिए अंग्रेजी भाषा में तथा लिली के लिए हिन्दी भाषा में शब्द नहीं है। यह परेशानी तब और बढ जाती है जब प्रशासनिक शब्दावली का अनुवाद करना पडता है। ऐसे व्यक्तियों को इस तरह के अनुवाद में कृत्रिमता अनुभव होती है, जिनकी जुबान पर मूलभाषा का शब्द चढ चुका होता है। उदाहरणार्थ, यूनिवर्सिटी को सही या गलत ढंग से सभी बोल लेते हैं, कचहरी, मदरसा, फालतू आदि प्रचलित शब्द रहे हैं। पालतू पशुओं को मवेशी कहा जाता रहा है। इन और इन जैसे प्रचलित शब्दों के लिए जहाँ तक हो नये शब्दों की खोज नहीं करनी चाहिये।

सुभाष चंद्र
हिंदी अनुवादक

Translation Company

Machine Translation

"A renewed international effort is gearing up to design computers and software that smash language barriers and create a borderless global marketplace."

Machine translation (MT) is a procedure whereby a computer program analyzes a source text and produces a target text without further human involvement. In point of fact, machine translation typically does involve human intervention, in the form of pre-editing and post-editing. An exception to that rule might be, e.g., the translation of technical specifications (strings of technical terms and adjectives), using a dictionary-based machine-translation system.

So far, machine translation a major goal of natural-language processing has met with limited success. A November 6, 2007, example illustrates the hazards of uncritical reliance on machine translation. Machine translation has been brought to a large public by tools available on the Internet, such as Google, Babylon, Wikipedia etc. These tools produce a "gisting translation" a rough translation that, with luck, "gives the gist" of the source text.

With proper terminology work, with preparation of the source text for machine translation (pre-editing), and with re-working of the machine translation by a professional human translator (post-editing), commercial machine-translation tools can produce useful results, especially if the machine-translation system is integrated with a translation-memory or globalization-management system.

In regard to texts with limited ranges of vocabulary and simple sentence structure (e.g., weather reports), machine translation can deliver results that do not require much human intervention to be useful. Also, the use of a controlled language, combined with a machine-translation tool, will typically generate largely comprehensible translations.

Perspective of IT and Telecommunication Translation

Present Time is the time of Globalization. In the current scenario every country is carrying equal level of perception and thinking about its culture, state and business. Today one's loss or profit is connected to others loss or profit. One of the biggest examples of this is Economic Showdown. At this time, every country need to share there information, culture, and past experiences with another country. It’s not only benefited for their business but also it is beneficial for future steps of development and mutual growth.

Currently, there are many types of translation, but the scope of technical translation is becoming so popular that it seem difficult to assess the border. For this new software and new telecom device is being developed constantly. But the native people of other country can not understand the functionality of that device, machine. To solve it we need to render the information from one technical language to other technical language. It’s called IT/Telecom translation.

In this domain of translation there are more fields. Very first is the Hardware, It means that, when exploring any Hardware device, like HP LaserJet, other people may find it difficult to understand the ways of operating the device, most of the time they need the manual in their native language. Hence to make the manual and operating methods readable and understandable Hardware translation is needed.

Second one is Software translation, its purpose of translation is also same as above, but Web Site Localization is also an important pillar of IT/Telecom Translation Industry. As today, the use of internet is growing by the speed of light; hence giving a broad scope of exposure. For the same, every company is making their web site, and making it localized in local language. So that, people of any country know and understand them. By this, it becomes the fastest way to spread information of the company.

And the last field of this domain is Telecom Industry. In this part the content and manuals of device like Mobile, Fax machine, and Wireless get translated. Today these devices are being counted as one of the important need of human being. Irrespective of there knowledge of English or any other foreign language, they use it. But to use them, they need to understand the methods provided in the manual, and for the same they Telecom Translation is coming in use.

To make the translation easier and approachable there are many Company, Agency and Freelancers handling the translations of these fields. And Somya Translators Pvt Ltd is one of the solutions provider for all of these translation issue.

Translation process

Before I brief you the process of translation, we should first understand the meaning of translation. Translation is the process to render written or spoken source language texts to equivalent written or spoken target language texts.

At the first glance, as per the definition, it seem very easy and quick process, but in reality it is as complicated and methodological. When a project come for translation it has to go through several stages before it finally reaches to the translator. Even then it goes through more stages till its final delivery. This entire process can be sum up as the Translation Process.

The translation process includes decoding the meaning of the source text, and re-encoding or translating this meaning in the target language. Behind this simple process lies various activities like checking grammar, syntax, idioms, semantics, and the like of the source language and also the culture of its speakers. It is necessary that the translator's knowledge of the target language is more important than his knowledge of the source language.

The process, which is usually followed by all to ensure a well written, accurate translation:

The document that is to be translated is assigned to a person who is well versed with the native language is that which the document is being translated into. The document is edited by a person who is fluent in both the target and source languages. Accuracy, grammar, spelling and writing style are all checked in the editing stage. The document is proofread by a person who is fluent in both languages. It is also necessary to check spelling and layout. Finally, before the document goes to the client, the document is further rechecked to ensure that the translation is correct, there is no missing text or texts and the layout is perfect.

There are also some particular problems in the translation process: problems of ambiguity, problems that originate from structural and lexical differences between languages and multiword units like idioms and collocations. Another problem would be the grammar because there are several constructions of grammar poorly understood, in the sense that it isn't clear how they should be represented, or what rules should be used to describe them. The words that are really hard to translate are frequently the small, common words, whose precise meaning depends heavily on context. Besides, some words are untranslatable when one wishes to remain in the same grammatical category. The question of whether particular words are untranslatable is frequently debated.

Few measures can be taken to avoid and produce the best Translation. It is important that translators are familiar with the product they are translating and also with the tools they are using. The translation process is not the replacement of one word with another, but the formation of concepts in another language. Thus, each translator should have equipment and knowledge compatible with the language being translated. Translation guidelines and instructions should be provided to ensure correct translation. To ensure accurate translation, terminology glossary should also be provided to the translators.

To ensure quality we must follow this process and safety measures. After all it’s the quality and gaining clients trust that matters.

Linguistic issues with Translation

One of the distinctive properties of translation is creativity, by which we mean the ability of native speakers of a language to produce and understand new forms in their language. Even though creativity is most apparent when it comes to translation and sentence formation, it is also manifest in our lexical knowledge, where new words are added to our mental lexicon regularly.

Translation is always done in clear and grammatically correct language. Whether it is Hindi, English or any other language, it should be formed grammatically correct as well as grammatically sound. As an English to Hindi translator in Somya Translators Pvt Ltd. I would like to share some of my view on the issues we face while translating from native language to different and vise-a-versa.

Many times it had been noticed that we get so involve and used to technical translation that we forget that translation is not about translating every word, instead its all together a business of forming a whole new sentence from one language to other language conveying the same meaning. As I am not much aware of any other language I can only judge two languages, i.e. of course Hindi and English. Sometimes I do find mistranslations in articles translated in Hindi, which is probably due to insufficient knowledge on the part of the native language, but it is very rare, and I am always surprised when this happens. They do not really contain mistranslations based on misunderstanding of the original language and the technical terms are usually correct, but the target language is sometime so bad that I have to read the original text at least twice before I can figure out what the translated text means.

One of the reasons behind this is the phonological, alphabetical difference between Hindi and English and also the preposition and postposition difference in them. The Devangari script employed by Hindi contains both vowels (10) and consonants (40). Hindi is highly phonetic; i.e. the pronunciation of new words can be reliably predicted from their written form. This is in strong contrast to English. Conversely, it results in mispronouncing words that people first encounter in writing. In Hindi, objects have genders. For instance, a book is feminine and a house is masculine. Hindi uses a different word order than English. Since grammar is quite difficult with two genders, laypeople make mistakes in that regard. Also in Hindi Post-positions are used instead of Prepositions.

Translators should be aware of the fact that incorrect comprehension of a text considerably decreases the quality of the translation. Finding solutions to dilemmas is a constant in the work of the translator. This includes reading comprehension strategies for translation (underlining words, detecting translation difficulties, contextualizing lexical items, analyzing them, and so on.)

Translators should also be aware that meaning is not only conveyed by words. Hence adequate decoding and re-coding of nomenclatures, figures, tables and charts; standardized terms, acronyms, toponyms, etc. is a matter that must be properly considered.

Last, but not least, translators should observe that the essence, in terms of meaning and sense, register and style, etc., and the lay out of the original text, in terms of format, i.e. sources, paragraphs, indentation, columns, tables, etc., is properly adhered to in the translated unit.

If followed properly this can and will certainly help in providing the best translation in business.For More Information Plz visit our site here :-

Importance of Glossary in maintaining Consistency

In the field of Translation, use of glossary and maintaining consistency is the first and foremost rule. But before we move on, let’s first understand what a glossary is?

A glossary is a specialized, customized dictionary used by translators working on difficult text with specific terminology. It includes a term and its definition in the target language.

For any project to be perfect and consistent, glossary plays the important role. Apart from providing you the meaning of the words, it also gives you appropriate meaning in sync with the project. A glossary plays more vital role in industrial or technical translations then in general translation. For a general document, you can compromise with consistency sometime as the same word may mean different and they don't even have strict guidelines of maintaining consistency, but in technical or industrial translation there are norms and rules to be followed. A glossary helps you alleviate this consistency problem in this kind of translation. The glossary helps translators make sure that each time a defined key term appears, in any language, it is used consistently and correctly.

This helps maintaining the essence and true spirit of the source text. Another reason is that most translators know that names of companies, abbreviations, etc. are usually retained in English when translating documents. But a layperson will just go ahead and translate everything without considering the end reader and the accepted norms in translation. This will give a negative impression of the Translation Agency and the translator. Therefore, to ensure the translation adheres to company style guidelines and preferred terminology, for very specialized texts clients are sometimes asked to provide a glossary. The preferred terms are entered into the glossary to ensure consistency throughout a project. A glossary may also include a list of not to be translated terms, typically product names.

The glossary contains key terminology in source language and approved translations for that terminology in all your target languages. It is one of the key tools, along with a style guide and Translation Memory, to assure that all translated materials meet your quality expectations. Moreover, the glossary becomes even more important for consistency if you use more than one translation resource. This is especially true in the case of tight deadlines when many translators may be working on various elements of a project simultaneously.

By helping in eliminating uncertainty in the translation process, the glossary will enforce consistency, shorten the time it takes to translate a document, makes it easy for translators and reviewers to translate and review the document and saves effort and time, while making changes after the review.

Translation, never easy nor diffficult

Translation is the process of converting one language into another with respect to cultural, social values. It is said that “It takes less time to train an airman to become a fighter pilot than it takes to become a good translator". For Translation it is must that a translator should very well aware with both source and target language. This is why more translators are the native speakers of the required language in which translation is needed. But having knowledge of native language is not only a requirement for being a translator.

Translation is neither very difficult work to do but on the other hand it is not also very easier to do.

What is Translation?

Translation is the transmittal of written text from one language into another. Translation Refers to the written language, and is the action of interpretation of the meaning of a text, and subsequent production of an equivalent text that communicates the same message in another language. The text to be translated is called the source text, and the language it is to be translated into is called the target language.

Translation must take into account constraints that include context, the rules of grammar of the two languages, their writing conventions, and their idioms. A common misconception is that there exists a simple word-for-word correspondence between any two languages, and that translation is a straightforward mechanical process. A word-for-word translation does not take into account context, grammar, conventions, and idioms.

Some of the definitions of Translation are:

• a written communication in a second language having the same meaning as the written communication in a first language
• a uniform movement without rotation
• transformation: the act of changing in form or shape or appearance; "a photograph is a translation of a scene onto a two-dimensional surface"
• (mathematics) a transformation in which the origin of the coordinate system is moved to another position but the direction of each axis remains the same
• (genetics) the process whereby genetic information coded in messenger RNA directs the formation of a specific protein at a ribosome in the cytoplasm
• rewording something in less technical terminology

How to translate?

As we already discussed that translation needs that a translator should have fluent and accurate knowledge of both the source and target languages. Although before doing translation one should remember few technical aspects also like consistency, accuracy, grammar, vocabulary, glossary etc.

Before starting translation important aspects to remember are:-
• Go through the whole translatable document, i.e. Source
• Check the content given, whether the content is complete or incomplete.
• Understand the theme of the content
• Check whether any terminology has been provided or not.
• Check for glossary
• Read the instructions provided.
• If anything is unclear, or have any query, contact the job provider for accurate details.

Only after going through all the above mentioned points, start translating the document. While translating the document also consider these points:
• Translate the document as per the meaning.
• Please avoid word-for-word translation.
• Maintain consistency.
• Follow the glossary provided.
• Do the translation as per instructions.
• Use easy to understand language.
• Follow grammar strictly.
• Use proper words and
• Avoid using bookish language.

Translation, when practiced by relatively bilingual individuals but especially when by persons with limited proficiency in one or both languages, involves a risk of spilling-over of idioms and usages from the source language into the target language.

The art of translation is as old as written literature. Since the Industrial Revolution, developments in technology, communications and business have changed translation greatly. In particular, the advent of the Internet has greatly expanded the market for translation and introduced a vast array of new tools and types of work.

Once the activity of a relatively small group of clerics, scholars, it is now a profession with accredited schools, professional associations, and accepted standards and pay scales. Translators, professional as well as amateur, have thus played an important role in the evolution of languages and cultures.

Difference between Hindi and Urdu

Linguists think of Hindi and Urdu as the same language, the difference being that Hindi is written in Devanagari and draws vocabulary from Sanskrit, while Urdu is written in Persian script and draws on Persian and Arabic.

Hindi is closely related to Urdu, the main language of Pakistan, which is written with the Arabic script, and linguists consider Standard Hindi and Standard Urdu to be different formal registers both derived from the Khari Boli dialect, which is also known as Hindustani.

The separation is largely a political one; before the partition of India into India and Pakistan, spoken Hindi and Urdu were considered the same language, Hindustani. Apart from the difference in writing systems, the other main difference between Hindi and Urdu is that Hindi contains more vocabulary from Sanskrit, while Urdu contains more vocabulary from Persian.

Hindi Translators

Hindi, the second most spoken language

Hindi is the second most spoken language in the world, after Chinese. About 500 million people speak Hindi, in India and abroad, and the total number of people who can understand the language may be 800 million. The constitution of India (Article 343) recognizes Hindi as the official language of India. Hindi is also the main language in many states of India such as Haryana, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Uttaranchal/ Uttarakhand, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh and Himachal Pradesh. It is spoken by more than 487 million people in the world. The other dialects of Hindi are Brajbhasha, Bundeli, Awadhi, Marwari, Maithili, and Bhojpuri, to name only a few.

Total speakers  487 million
Official language of  India

India  363,839,000
Bangladesh  346,000
Belize   8, 455
Botswana  2000
Germany  24,500
Nepal   170, 997
New Zealand  11,200
Philippines  2,415
Singapore  5000
South Africa   890, 292
Uganda   147, 000
United Kingdom   243 000
USA  26,253
Yemen   65, 000
Total  487,000,000

Clearly there's only one Hindi language, but as in most countries different sections of the population will have different phrases and use of language. Hindi can be traced back to as early as the seventh or eighth century. The dialect that has been chosen as the official language is Khariboli in the Devnagari script. Other dialects of Hindi are Brajbhasa, Bundeli, Awadhi, Marwari, Maithili and Bhojpuri.

It was in the 10th century that authentic Hindi poetry took its form and since then it has been constantly modified. History of Hindi literature as a whole can be divided into four stages: Adikal (the Early Period), Bhaktikal (the Devotional Period), Ritikal (the Scholastic Period) and Adhunikkal (the Modern Period).

Hindi is an Indo-Aryan language with about 487 million speakers. It is one of the official languages of India and is the main language used in the northern states of Rajasthan, Delhi, Haryana, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Himachal Pradesh, Jharkhand and Bihar, and is spoken in much of north and central India alongside other languages such as Punjabi, Gujarati, Marathi or Bengali. In other parts of India, as well as in Nepal, Bangladesh and Pakistan, Hindi is understood. In Fiji people of Indian origin speak Hindi, and in some areas the Fijian people also speak it.

History of the Hindi Language Hindi shares with English and most other European languages the same ancestral roots. They evolved from a language thought to have been spoken in Central Asia around 5,000 BC, called by linguists the Indo-European parent language. For this reason and because of the 200-year influence of the British in India, many basic words in Hindi are the same as or similar to their equivalent in English. English words of Hindi origin include cot, loot, thug, chintz, bandanna, dungaree, rajali, pundit, coolie, tom-tom, and juggernaut.

Hindi first started to be used in writing during the 4th century AD. It was originally written with the Brahmi script but since the 11th century AD it has been written with the Devanāgarī alphabet. The first printed book in Hindi was John Gilchrist's Grammar of the Hindoostanee Language which was published in 1796.

Hindi language has its roots in the classical Sanskrit language. The language acquired its current form over many centuries, and numerous dialectical variations still exist. Like Sanskrit, Hindi is written in the Dev Nagari script, which is common to several other Indian languages as well. Much of the vocabulary of Hindi comes from Sanskrit, though Hindi also has a special relationship with Urdu. Their grammar and much of their vocabulary are virtually identical.

The development of Hindi into a national language had its beginnings in the colonial period, when the British began to cultivate it as a standard among government officials. Later it was used for literary purposes and has since become the vehicle for some excellent prose and poetry.
After independence of India, the Government of India worked on standardizing Hindi.
In 1954, the Government of India set up a Committee for preparing a grammar of Hindi. The committee's report was later released as "A Basic Grammar of Modern Hindi" in 1958.
Hindi became the official language of India on January 26, 1965, although English and 21 other languages are recognized as official languages by the Constitution of India.

Vowels and vowel diacritics



Monday, January 11, 2010

Style guide Creation for Assamese Language (Part II)

Morphology and grammar
The Assamese language has the following characteristic morphological features.
1. Gender and number are not grammatically marked.
2. There is lexical distinction of gender in the third person pronoun.
3. Transitive verbs are distinguished from intransitive.
4. The agentive case is overtly marked as distinct from the accusative.
5. Kinship nouns are inflected for personal pronominal possession.
6. Adverbs can be derived from the verb roots.
7. A passive construction may be employed idiomatically.

The Assamese phonetic inventory consists of eight oral vowel phonemes, three nasalized vowel phonemes, fifteen diphthongs (two nasalized diphthongs) and twenty-one consonant phonemes.
The parts of speech uses in Assamese languageNoun1. Common Noun ---- Man, cow
2. Proper Noun ----- Ram, Rahim, Hari
3. Material Noun ---- Water, Box, Table
4. Verbal Noun ----- Movement, tour
5. Abstract Noun ----- Happiness, beautyPronoun
Example ------ he, she, they, yesterday, now

1. Proper Adjective ----- beautiful, ugly
2. Verbal Adjective ----- edited, drawn
3. Adjective Adjective ---- Very much, too much, too many
4. Adverb ---- quickly, repeatedly

1. Transitive ---- eat, get
2. Intransitive ---- walk, cry

Wednesday, January 6, 2010

Style Guide Creation for Assamese Language - Part I

Assamese is an eastern Indo-Aryan language spoken by about 20 million people in the Indian states of Assam, Meghalaya and Arunachal Pradesh, and also spoken in Bangladesh and Bhutan. Assamese is closely related to Bengali and Oriya.

The Assamese alphabet is written with a version of the Bengali alphabet. The first printed book was Atmaram Sarma’s translation of the Bible, which published in 1813 by the Serampore English Missionary press in Kolkatta.

The first Assamese dictionary was compiled by an American Baptist Missionary Dr. Miles Bronson. In 1867 at American Baptist Mission Press Sibsagar, published his dictionary. The second dictionary of Assamese language is ‘Hemkosh’ based on Sanskrit spellings, compiled by Hemchandra Barua.


The Assamese script has 41 consonants and 11 Vowels. The Assamese script has 52 characters including 41 consonants and 11 vowels. The characters are similar to the Devanagari. The language has a number of Juktakhars which are combination of consonants.

Assamese alphabet
Vowels and vowel diacritics


Some conjunct consonants (Juktakhar)

Additional symbols